Le journal du hard - Netflix

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Type: News

Languages: French

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Le journal du hard - Dreyfus affair - Netflix

The Dreyfus Affair (French: l'affaire Dreyfus, pronounced [la.fɛʁ dʁɛ.fys]) was a political scandal that divided the Third French Republic from 1894 until its resolution in 1906. The affair is often seen as a modern and universal symbol of injustice, and it remains one of the most notable examples of a complex miscarriage of justice and antisemitism. The major role played by the press and public opinion proved influential in the lasting social conflict. The scandal began in December 1894 with the treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian and Jewish descent. Sentenced to life imprisonment for allegedly communicating French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris, Dreyfus was imprisoned on Devil's Island in French Guiana, where he spent nearly five years. Evidence came to light in 1896—primarily through an investigation instigated by Georges Picquart, head of counter-espionage—identifying a French Army major named Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy as the real culprit. After high-ranking military officials suppressed the new evidence, a military court unanimously acquitted Esterhazy after a trial lasting only two days. The Army then accused Dreyfus with additional charges based on falsified documents. Word of the military court's framing of Dreyfus and of an attempted cover-up began to spread, chiefly owing to J'accuse…!, a vehement open letter published in a Paris newspaper in January 1898 by writer Émile Zola. Activists put pressure on the government to reopen the case. In 1899, Dreyfus was returned to France for another trial. The intense political and judicial scandal that ensued divided French society between those who supported Dreyfus (now called “Dreyfusards”), such as Sarah Bernhardt, Anatole France, Henri Poincaré and Georges Clemenceau, and those who condemned him (the anti-Dreyfusards), such as Édouard Drumont, the director and publisher of the antisemitic newspaper La Libre Parole. The new trial resulted in another conviction and a 10-year sentence, but Dreyfus was given a pardon and set free. Eventually all the accusations against Dreyfus were demonstrated to be baseless. In 1906 Dreyfus was exonerated and reinstated as a major in the French Army. He served during the whole of World War I, ending his service with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He died in 1935. The affair from 1894 to 1906 divided France deeply and lastingly into two opposing camps: the pro-Army, mostly Catholic “anti-Dreyfusards” and the anticlerical, pro-republican Dreyfusards. It embittered French politics and encouraged radicalization.

Le journal du hard - In French - Netflix

1961 (in French) Pierre Miquel, The Dreyfus Affair, University of France Press – PUF – coll. “What do I know?”, réprinted 2003 (ISBN 2130532268) 1989 (in French) Pierre Miquel, The Third Republic, Fayard 1986 (in French) Michel Winock, The fever of France. The great political crises. 1871–1968, Points Seuil, (ISBN 2020098318) 1999 (in French) Michel Winock, The School of Intellectuals, Le Seuil, coll. Points 1994 (in French) Pierre Birnbaum, The Dreyfus Affair, The Republic in peril, Gallimard, coll. “Discoveries”, (ISBN 978-2070532773). 1994 (in French) Pierre Birnbaum, The France of the Dreyfus Affair, Gallimard, Paris 1998 (in French) Pierre Birnbaum, Was the French Army Antisemitic?, pp. 70–82 in Michel Winock: The Dreyfus Affair, Editions du Seuil, Paris, ISBN 2-02-032848-8 1994 (in French) Michael Burns, Histoire d'une famille française, les Dreyfus, Fayard, 1994 (ISBN 978-2213031323) 1994 (in French) Éric Cahm, The Dreyfus Affair, Päperback, coll. “references” 1994 (in French) Michel Drouin (dir.), The Dreyfus Affair Dictionary, Flammarion, reprinted 2006 (ISBN 2082105474). 1994 (in French) Vincent Duclert, The Dreyfus Affair, The Discovery, reprinted 2006 (ISBN 2707147931). 2006 (in French) Vincent Duclert, Dreyfus is Innocent: History of an Affair of State, Larousse, (ISBN 203582639X) 2006 (in French) Vincent Duclert, Alfred Dreyfus, Librairie Artheme Fayard, ISBN 2-213-62795-9 2010 (in French) Vincent Duclert, The Dreyfus Affair. When justice enlightens the Republic, Private 1999 (in English) Martin P. Johnson, The Dreyfus Affair: Honour and Politics in the Belle Epoque (New York: Palgrave Macmillan). 2000 (in French) Francis Démier, The France of the Nineteenth Century, Seuil, coll. “Points in History”. 2006 (in French) Méhana Mouhou, Dreyfus Affair: conspiracy in the Republic, Éd. L'Harmattan. 2012 (in French) Pierre Gervais, Pauline Peretz et Pierre Stutin, The secret file of the Dreyfus Affair, Alma editor, (ISBN 978-2362790430)

Le journal du hard - References - Netflix